5o2 HISTORY OF PERSIA more dangerous abroad than in Persia, brought him back as an honoured guest. Jamal-u-Din took advantage of his return to preach his revolutionary ideas, and they made such progress that a rising appeared imminent. The Shah wished to seize him, but he escaped and took sanctuary at Shah Abdul Azim, a shrine close to Teheran. There he remained for seven months, fulminating against the Shah and advocating his deposition. Among his followers was Mirza Riza of Nuk,1 who afterwards assassinated Nasir-u- Din. Jamal-u-Din was at length arrested in his house, which adjoined the sanctuary, and was again expelled from Persia, in 1890. The Shah certainly,appears to have treated with leniency a subject who was guilty of high treason. Handed over to the Turkish authorities, the Sayyid was taken to Basra, where he was kept under observation. He managed, however, to escape by steamer and joined Malkom Khan in London, where they edited the newspaper Kanun. Not long after the Sultan, alarmed at the influence gained by this journal, thought it desirable to invite Jamal-u-Din to revisit Con- stantinople, where he was treated as an honoured guest but was not free to leave. On the assassination of Nasir-u-Din, the extradition of the Sayyid was demanded together with that of three other revolutionaries.2 The Sultan surrendered the three latter men, and they were executed, but he refused to hand over Jamal-u-Din, who shortly afterwards died. Thus passed off the stage a man possessed of considerable capacity and much personal magnetism. Though unfettered by scruples, he was honest in his devotion to his revolutionary ideals, and tried to improve the position of Islam. Prince Malkom Khan.—Among the protagonists who attacked the old order was Malkom Khan, whose career was extraordinarily varied. He was the son of a certain Yakub Khan, an Armenian who became a convert to Islam, and first appeared at Teheran as a conjurer, whose feats of 1 Nuk is a small district of the Yezd province. The inhabitants of Kerman much resent the imputation that Mir&a Riza was a Kermani. 3 The ^extradition of these men had been demanded some time previously and they had been imprisoned at Trebissond, but before the assassination the Sultan had refused to hand them over to the Persian Government.